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INVESTIGATIONS

Stone

RI min

RI max

Biref min

Biref max

Dens min

Dens max

Colour

Location

Info

ne min

ne max

no min

no max

Spectrum

UVS

UVL

Reference

Beryl-Synthetic emerald - flux grown

1.55

1.561

0.005

0.005

2.628

2.647

mid bluish green

Japan

chelsea: red, Gilson-type flux

1.550

1.558

1.555

1.561

emerald spectrum

inert

inert

The Australian Gemmologist 1982 may, p237-238

Beryl-Synthetic emerald - flux grown

1.553

1.563

0.004

0.004

2.66

2.67

 

 

Nacken/Germany

1.553

1.559

1.557

1.563

 

 

 

Gemmologie, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gemmologischen Gesellschaft 1995 Dez, p79

Beryl-Synthetic emerald - flux grown

1.555

1.568

0.003

0.004

2.604

2.658

 

 

chelsea : pink to red

1.555

1.565

1.558

1.568

 

red-orange

red

L'émeraude, Connaissances actuels et prospectives , AFG, 1998 1998 p 232

Beryl-Synthetic emerald - flux grown

1.555

1.564

0.004

0.004

2.604

2.658

 

 

chelsea : red

1.555

1.560

1.559

1.564

 

inert

weak red

L'émeraude, Connaissances actuels et prospectives , AFG, 1998 1998 p 232

Beryl-Synthetic emerald - flux grown

1.555

1.558

0.003

0.004

2.65

2.66

 

 

 

1.555

1.562

1.558

1.568

 

weak orange-red

bright red

Gems & Gemology 1987 Fall p 140-147

Beryl-Synthetic emerald - flux grown

1.556

1.565

0.002

0.002

2.649

2.651

 

 

Lennix production

1.556

1.562

1.557

1.565

 

 

 

Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gemmologischen Gesellschaft 1989 Apr, p1-10

Beryl-Synthetic emerald - flux grown

1.556

1.563

0.03

0.004

2.63

2.64

 

 

Russia "Kimberley", "Empress"

1.556

1.559

1.559

1.563

 

 

 

Gemmologie, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gemmologischen Gesellschaft 1995 Dez, p79

Beryl-Synthetic emerald - flux grown

1.557

1.562

0.004

0.004

2.66

2.67

 

 

Zerfass/Germany

1.557

1.558

1.561

1.562

 

 

 

Gemmologie, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gemmologischen Gesellschaft 1995 Dez, p79

Beryl-Synthetic emerald - flux grown

1.558

1.562

0.004

0.004

2.65

2.66

 

 

IG-Farben/Germany, "Igmerald"

1.558

1.559

1.561

1.562

 

 

 

Gemmologie, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gemmologischen Gesellschaft 1995 Dez, p79

Beryl-Synthetic emerald - flux grown

1.558

1.564

0.003

0.004

2.65

2.66

 

 

Seiko / Japan "Bijoreve"

1.558

1.560

1.561

1.564

 

 

 

Gemmologie, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gemmologischen Gesellschaft 1995 Dez, p79

Beryl-Synthetic emerald - flux grown

1.558

1.566

0.003

0.004

2.64

2.65

 

 

Lens/ France "Lennix"

1.558

1.562

1.561

1.566

 

 

 

Gemmologie, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gemmologischen Gesellschaft 1995 Dez, p79

Beryl-Synthetic emerald - flux grown

1.558

1.579

0.003

0.008

2.65

2.7

 

 

chelsea : orange-red

1.558

1.571

1.568

1.579

 

red, orange-red, yellow, inert

inert, red, orange, greenish

L'émeraude, Connaissances actuels et prospectives , AFG, 1998 1998 p 232

Beryl-Synthetic emerald - flux grown

1.559

1.565

0.003

0.004

2.65

2.69

 

 

Chatham /USA

1.559

1.561

1.562

1.565

 

 

 

Gemmologie, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gemmologischen Gesellschaft 1995 Dez, p79

Beryl-Synthetic emerald - flux grown

1.559

1.569

0.003

0.005

2.65

2.67

 

 

Gilson/ France

1.559

1.565

1.561

1.569

 

 

 

Gemmologie, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gemmologischen Gesellschaft 1995 Dez, p79

Beryl-Synthetic emerald - flux grown

1.559

1.565

0.003

0.005

2.63

2.65

 

 

Kyocera/ Japan

1.559

1.560

1.562

1.565

 

 

 

Gemmologie, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gemmologischen Gesellschaft 1995 Dez, p79

Beryl-Synthetic emerald - flux grown

1.559

1.568

0.004

0.005

2.63

2.64

 

 

Lechleitner/ Austria

1.559

1.563

1.563

1.568

 

 

 

Gemmologie, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gemmologischen Gesellschaft 1995 Dez, p79

Beryl-Synthetic emerald - flux grown

1.559

1.564

0.003

0.005

2.65

2.65

 

 

chelsea : red

1.559

1.561

1.562

1.564

 

red

red

L'émeraude, Connaissances actuels et prospectives , AFG, 1998 1998 p 232

Beryl-emerald synthetic -flux

1.559

1.563

0.004

0.004

2.65

2.65

 

 

made in Russia

 

 

 

 

 

inert

weak to moderate orangy red

Gems & Gemology 1985 Summer, p79-85

Beryl-emerald synthetic -flux

1.56

1.564

0.004

0.004

2.665

2.665

 

Japan

Seiko

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Journal of Gemmology 1986 Vol 20, N°1, p14-17

Beryl-Synthetic emerald - flux grown

1.56

1.564

0.003

0.004

2.62

2.67

green

made by J.O. Crystal Company Inc., Long Beach, USA;

Empress Cultured Emerald, 0.48-1.09 ct

1.560

1.560

1.563

1.540

Crł+

 

weak red

Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gemmologischen Gesellschaft 1994 Jun, p2

Beryl-Synthetic emerald -hydrothermal synthetic emerald overgrowth

1.562

1.581

0.04

0.006

2.67

2.695

 

 

chelsea : red

1.562

1.575

1.567

1.581

 

red to greenish

red to greenish

L'émeraude, Connaissances actuels et prospectives , AFG, 1998 1998 p 232

Beryl-Synthetic emerald - hydrothermally grown

1.563

1.571

0.004

0.006

2.68

2.69

 

 

Lechleitner/ Austria "Sandwich"

1.563

1.565

1.569

1.571

 

 

 

Gemmologie, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gemmologischen Gesellschaft 1995 Dez, p79

Beryl-Synthetic emerald - hydrothermally grown

1.564

1.574

0.004

0.005

2.68

2.72

 

 

chelsea :  red

1.564

1.569

1.570

1.574

 

inert

inert

L'émeraude, Connaissances actuels et prospectives , AFG, 1998 1998 p 232

Beryl-Synthetic emerald - hydrothermally grown

1.564

1.578

0.005

0.006

2.67

2.69

 

 

Linde/ USA

1.564

1.572

1.569

1.578

 

 

 

Gemmologie, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gemmologischen Gesellschaft 1995 Dez, p79

Beryl-Synthetic emerald - hydrothermally grown

1.565

1.62

0.005

0.01

2.66

2.71

 

 

Lechleitner/ Austria "Emerita, Symerald"

1.565

1.610

1.569

1.620

 

 

 

Gemmologie, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gemmologischen Gesellschaft 1995 Dez, p79

Beryl-Synthetic emerald - hydrothermally grown

1.566

1.578

0.005

0.007

2.67

2.68

 

 

chelsea :  red

1.566

1.571

1.572

1.578

 

moderated red

moderated red

L'émeraude, Connaissances actuels et prospectives , AFG, 1998 1998 p 232

Beryl-Synthetic emerald - hydrothermally grown

1.566

1.577

0.004

0.006

2.68

2.72

 

 

Biron/ Australia "Biron","Kimberley", "AGEE"

1.566

1.571

1.570

1.577

 

 

 

Gemmologie, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gemmologischen Gesellschaft 1995 Dez, p79

Beryl-Synthetic emerald - flux grown

1.567

1.573

0.004

0.005

2.67

2.7

 

 

chelsea : pinkish red

1.567

1.568

1.571

1.573

 

inert

weak red

L'émeraude, Connaissances actuels et prospectives , AFG, 1998 1998 p 232

Beryl-Synthetic emerald - hydrothermally grown

1.568

1.578

0.005

0.008

2.67

2.69

bluish green

Czech Republic

 chelsea : strong red; Cl-bearing, absence of Fe, Na or Mg

1.568

1.570

1.573

1.578

 

moderate red

weak red

Gems & Gemology 2005 winter, p328-338

Beryl-Synthetic emerald - hydrothermally grown

1.568

1.575

0.005

0.006

2.68

2.69

 

 

Lechleitner/ Austria "Vollsynthese"

1.568

1.569

1.573

1.575

 

 

 

Gemmologie, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gemmologischen Gesellschaft 1995 Dez, p79

Beryl-Synthetic emerald - hydrothermally grown

1.568

1.573

0.005

0.005

2.69

2.7

 

 

Lechleitner

 

 

 

 

Cr and Ni

 

 

The Journal of Gemmology 1990 Vol 22,N°1,p20-32

Beryl-Synthetic emerald - hydrothermally grown - Malossi

1.568

1.578

0.005

0.008

2.67

2.69

bluish green, transparent

 

marketed since 12/2004

1.568

1.570

1.573

1.578

strong, yellowish-green and bluish green

moderate red

weak red

Gems & Gemology 2005 p328-338

Beryl-Synthetic - hydrothermally grown

1.568

1.572

0.004

0.004

2.68

2.68

red

 

0.81 ct

 

 

 

 

diffuse band at 420 nm, a broad 435-465 nm band, a faint band at 500 nm, a diffuse weak band at 530 nm, a strong 545 nm band, and lines at 560 and 585 nm

inert

inert

Gems & Gemology 1997 Spring, p68-69

Beryl-Synthetic emerald - hydrothermally grown

1.569

1.579

0.006

0.007

2.685

2.696

 

 

 

1.569

1.572

1.575

1.579

 

 

inert (V) to red (Cr)

L'émeraude, Connaissances actuels et prospectives , AFG, 1998 1998 p 232

Beryl-Synthetic emerald - hydrothermally grown

1.569

1.574

0.005

0.005

2.7

2.8

moderate to strong green

"Pool emerald"(Emerald Pool Mining Company, Perth, Australia)

chelsea : red

 

 

 

 

Cr and V absorption spectrum

inert

inert

The Australian Gemmologist 1988 Nov p 443-447

Beryl-Synthetic emerald - hydrothermally grown

1.569

1.574

0.004

0.005

2.68

2.71

 

 

 

1.569

1.569

1.573

1.574

477, 637, 646, 662, 680, 683 lines, vague band 400-480nm, broad band 580-615nm

inert

inert

Gems & Gemology 1985 fall p156-170

Beryl-Synthetic emerald - hydrothermally grown

1.569

1.577

0.006

0.006

2.67

2.69

 

 

Vacuum Ventures/ USA "Regency"

1.569

1.571

1.575

1.577

 

 

 

Gemmologie, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gemmologischen Gesellschaft 1995 Dez, p79

Beryl-Synthetic red beryl - hydrothermally grown

1.569

1.58

0.006

0.008

2.67

2.7

red to orange red

Institute of Crystallography, Moscow

 

1.569

1.573

1.576

1.580

 

inert

inert

Gems & Gemology 2001 spring p42-55

Beryl-Synthetic aquamarine - hydrothermally grown

1.57

1.576

0.006

0.006

2.69

2.69

blue (Cu)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

violet

Gemmologie, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gemmologischen Gesellschaft 1999 Jul, p99

Beryl-Synthetic beryl - hydrothermally grown

1.57

1.578

0.008

0.008

2.69

2.69

green (V)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gemmologie, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gemmologischen Gesellschaft 1999 Jul, p99

Beryl-Synthetic emerald - hydrothermally grown

1.57

1.578

0.006

0.007

2.68

2.69

bluish green

 

 

1.570

1.571

1.576

1.578

 

inert

inert

The Journal of Gemmology 2006 Vol 30, No 1/2, p5973

Beryl-Synthetic emerald - hydrothermally grown

1.57

1.578

0.006

0.006

2.67

2.69

slightly bluish green

China

 

1.570

1.572

1.576

1.578

 

moderate red

moderate red

Gems & Gemology 1997 winter p276-2291

Beryl-Synthetic emerald - hydrothermally grown

1.57

1.578

0.006

0.006

2.67

2.69

 

China

 

1.570

1.572

1.576

1.578

 

red

red

L'émeraude, Connaissances actuels et prospectives , AFG, 1998 1998 p 232

Beryl-Synthetic emerald - hydrothermally grown

1.57

1.579

0.006

0.007

2.66

2.7

 

 

Techyears/ Hong Kong

1.570

1.572

1.576

1.579

 

 

 

Gemmologie, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gemmologischen Gesellschaft 1995 Dez, p79

Beryl-Synthetic emerald - hydrothermally grown

1.57

1.578

0.007

0.008

2.68

2.7

 

 

"Pool emeralds" from Australia

1.570

1.571

1.577

1.578

 

 

 

Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gemmologischen Gesellschaft 1989 Apr, p11-16

Beryl-Synthetic emerald- hydrothermally grown - Tairus

1.57

1.578

0.006

0.007

2.68

2.69

slightly bluish green

 

coloured by V and Cu

1.570

1.571

1.576

1.578

 

inert

inert

The Journal of Gemmology 2006 1/2, p59-73

Beryl-Synthetic morganite - hydrothermally grown

1.57

1.576

0.006

0.006

2.67

2.67

pink

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

weak violet

Gemmologie, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gemmologischen Gesellschaft 1999 Jul, p99

Beryl-Synthetic red beryl - hydrothermally grown

1.57

1.58

0.008

0.008

2.63

2.65

red

Russia

098-1.08 ct

1.570

1.572

1.578

1.580

 

inert

inert

Gemmologie, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gemmologischen Gesellschaft 1999 Jul, p97-104

Beryl-Synthetic red beryl - hydrothermally grown

1.57

1.58

0.008

0.008

2.63

2.65

red

 

 

1.570

1.572

1.578

1.580

 

inert

inert

The Journal of Gemmology 1999 Vol 26, N°8, p481-486

Beryl-Synthetic aquamarine - hydrothermally grown

1.571

1.579

0.008

0.08

2.68

2.68

blue (Fe)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gemmologie, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gemmologischen Gesellschaft 1999 Jul, p99

Beryl-Synthetic emerald - flux grown

1.571

1.58

0.006

0.008

2.68

2.69

 

 

Gilson/ France; Fe doped

1.571

1.574

1.578

1.580

 

 

 

Gemmologie, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gemmologischen Gesellschaft 1995 Dez, p79

Beryl-Synthetic emerald - hydrothermally grown

1.571

1.584

0.005

0.008

2.68

2.7

 

Russia

 

1.571

1.581

1.578

1.584

 

 

 

Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gemmologischen Gesellschaft 1987 Jun, p51-60

Beryl-Synthetic aquamarine- hydrothermally grown

1.572

1.58

0.008

0.008

2.71

2.71

blue

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gemmologie, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gemmologischen Gesellschaft 1999 Sep, p163-164

Beryl-Synthetic beryl - hydrothermally grown

1.572

1.578

0.005

0.008

2.68

2.7

 

Russia

 

1.572

1.578

1.577

1.585

 

 

 

Gemmologie, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gemmologischen Gesellschaft 2000 Mar, p2-3

Beryl-Synthetic emerald - hydrothermally grown

1.572

1.584

0.006

0.007

2.67

2.73

green

Russia (Tairus)

chelsea: weak red

1.572

1.578

1.579

1.584

// natural

inert

inert

Gems & Gemology 1996 spring p32-39

Beryl-Synthetic emerald - hydrothermally grown

1.572

1.584

0.006

0.007

2.67

2.73

 

 

chelsea :  weakly red

1.572

1.578

1.579

1.584

 

inert

inert

L'émeraude, Connaissances actuels et prospectives , AFG, 1998 1998 p 232

Beryl-Synthetic emerald - hydrothermally grown

1.572

1.578

0.005

0.008

2.68

2.7

 

Russia

 

1.572

1.578

1.577

1.585

 

 

 

Gemmologie, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gemmologischen Gesellschaft 2000 Mar, p2-3

Beryl-Synthetic emerald - hydrothermally grown

1.572

1.585

0.005

0.008

2.68

2.7

 

 

Estland "Vasar"

1.572

1.577

1.577

1.585

 

 

 

Gemmologie, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gemmologischen Gesellschaft 1995 Dez, p79

Beryl-Synthetic emerald - hydrothermally grown

1.572

1.584

0.005

0.008

2.68

2.7

 

 

Russia "Novo", "Emsprit"

1.572

1.578

1.578

1.584

 

 

 

Gemmologie, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gemmologischen Gesellschaft 1995 Dez, p79

Beryl-Synthetic emerald - hydrothermally grown

1.574

1.587

0.005

0.006

2.64

2.66

 

 

chelsea :  inert

1.574

1.581

1.579

1.587

 

inert

reddish

L'émeraude, Connaissances actuels et prospectives , AFG, 1998 1998 p 232

Beryl-Synthetic morganite - hydrothermally grown

1.574

1.58

0.006

0.006

2.69

2.69

orange-red

 

 

 

 

 

Gemmologie, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gemmologischen Gesellschaft 1999 Jul, p99

Beryl-Synthetic - hydrothermally grown

1.575

1.581

0.006

0.006

2.68

2.68

red-purple

 

0.90 ct

 

 

 

 

a diffuse 435 nm band, a diffuse band at 540-580 nm, and weak lines at 650, 660, and 670 nm

 

 

Gems & Gemology 1997 Spring, p68-69

Beryl-Synthetic aquamarine - hydrothermally grown

1.575

1.583

0.008

0.008

2.69

2.69

light blue

 

manufactured in NOVOSIBIRSK, Russia

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gems & Gemology 1990 Fall,p206-211

Beryl-Synthetic emerald - hydrothermally grown

1.582

1.589

0.007

0.007

2.76

2.76

 

 

chelsea: dark red

1.582

1.582

1.589

1.589

 

inert

inert

Revue de Gemmologie 2006 N°158 Dec

 

TABLES

Stone

RI min

RI max

Biref min

Biref max

Dens min

Dens max

ne min

ne max

no min

no max

Reference

Beryl-emerald synthetic -flux

1.551

1.568

0.003

0.006

2.6

2.7

1.551

1.563

1.557

1.568

Bestimmungstabellen für Edelsteine, Birgit Günther, 2008 

Beryl-emerald synthetic -flux

1.553

1.58

0.003

0.008

2.63

2.69

1.553

1.574

1.557

1.580

Gemmological Tables, Ulrich Henn, 2004 

Beryl-emerald synthetic -flux

1.553

1.569

0.003

0.005

2.62

2.7

1.553

1.565

1.557

1.569

Tables of Gemstone Identification, Roger Dedeyne, Ivo Quintens, 2007 

Beryl-emerald synthetic -flux

1.554

1.573

0.003

0.005

2.6

2.7

1.554

1.568

1.558

1.573

Gemme, Dati per l'identificazione, P. De Stefano et al, 1993 

Beryl-emerald synthetic -flux

1.555

1.575

0.003

0.005

2.62

2.7

 

 

 

 

http://www.gemmology.be 

Beryl-emerald synthetic

1.555

1.575

0.005

0.008

2.65

2.8

 

 

 

 

Gemmo.eu 2013

Beryl-emerald synthetic -flux

1.558

1.563

0.003

0.003

2.65

2.65