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INVESTIGATIONS

Stone

RI min

RI max

Biref min

Biref max

Dens min

Dens max

Colour

Location

Info

ne min

ne max

no min

no max

Spectrum

UVS

UVL

Reference

Corundum - Ruby

1.759

1.77

0.008

0.009

3.97

4

light pink to rich purplish red; purple, violet, often with areas of blue zoning, rarely stars

Luc Yen and Quy Chau, Vietnam

metamorphosed marble

1.759

1.762

1.768

1.770

strong Cr

strong red to orange red

strong red to orange red

Ruby & Sapphire, R. Hughes, 1997 

Corundum - Ruby

1.759

1.77

0.008

0.009

3.97

4

moderate to highly saturated purplish red to purplish pink, through reddish purple in medium light to dark tones

Luc Yen and Quy Chau, Vietnam

 

1.759

1.762

1.768

1.770

468.5, 475, 476.5, 659, 668, 693, 694

similar as UVL but weaker

weak to very strong red to orany red

Gems & Gemology 1991 Fall p136-155

Corundum - Ruby

1.759

1.77

0.008

0.008

3.97

3.99

pink, reddish violet, violet

Nepal

 

1.759

1.762

1.767

1.770

 

 

 

Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gemmologischen Gesellschaft 1986 Jg 35, Nr 3/4, p105-125

Corundum - Ruby

1.759

1.771

0.008

0.009

3.98

4.04

purplish pink to red

Quy Chau - Quy Hop, Nghe An,  Vietnam

 

1.767

1.771

1.759

1.762

 

weak to strong red

weak to strong red

Gems & Gemology 2012 Fall 2012, p165

Corundum - Ruby

1.76

1.772

0.008

0.009

3.93

4.01

 

Ambatondrazaka and Vatomandry, Nordeastern Madagascar

1.9 and 1.5 ct

1.768

1.772

1.760

1.764

Cr

 

 

Gemmologie, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gemmologischen Gesellschaft 2001 Jun, p89-94

Corundum - Ruby

1.76

1.77

0.008

0.009

3.99

4.01

non-heat treated: weak to saturated from light to dark blue with distinct colour zoning; heat treated : medium to very dark tones with less distinct colour zoning

Andranondambo, Madagascar

 

1.760

1.762

1.768

1.770

 

 

usually inert, sometimes faint bluish white, very rarely faint red

Gems & Gemology 1996 p80-99

Corundum - Ruby

1.76

1.772

0.011

0.013

 

 

bright red to purplish red

Kootchinskoye deposit, Ural Mts, Russia

maximum 1ct

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gems & Gemology 1994 winter p243-252

Corundum - Ruby

1.76

1.778

0.008

0.01

3.96

4.04

 

Malawi

 

1.760

1.768

1.768

1.778

 

 

 

Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gemmologischen Gesellschaft 1988 37, Nr 3/4, p113-119

Corundum - Ruby

1.76

1.774

0.008

0.009

4

4

colourless to deep red; more purple than Thai/Cambodia, six rayed stars, rarely colour changed

Mogok (Birma)

metamorphosed crystalline limestones (marble)

1.760

1.766

1.768

1.774

strong Cr spectrum

strong to very strong red to orangy red

stronger than UVS

Ruby & Sapphire, R. Hughes, 1997 

Corundum - Ruby

1.76

1.778

0.008

0.009

3.97

4.01

medium to deep red, before heat treatment : cores of a blue to violet colour; no star stones

Mong Hsu (Birma)

metamorphosed crystalline limestone (marble)

1.760

1.770

1.768

1.778

strong Cr spectrum, IR (typical): 3189, 3233, 3299, 3310, 3368, 3380, 3393

moderate to very strong red

stronger than UVS

Ruby & Sapphire, R. Hughes, 1997 

Corundum - Ruby

1.76

1.77

0.008

0.008

3.93

3.98

 

Vietnam

 

1.760

1.762

1.768

1.770

Cr³+

red

strong red

Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gemmologischen Gesellschaft 1991 Apr, p25-28

Corundum - Ruby

1.76

1.769

0.009

0.009

3.92

3.97

pink

Vietnam

trapiche ruby, the fixed "star" is formed by mica inclusions.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gems & Gemology 1998 Fall, p225

Corundum - Ruby

1.76

1.78

0.008

0.01

3.99

4.01

after heat-treatment: Orange-red, purplish red

Mong Hsu, Myanmar

 

1.760

1.770

1.768

1.780

 

Intense red

Intense orange-red

Gems & Gemology 1995 Spring, p2-25

Corundum - Ruby

1.761

1.769

0.008

0.008

3.99

3.99

red, pink

Elahera, Sri Lanka

 

 

 

 

 

694, 693, 668 (strong), 659, 476, 475, 468nm

distinct pink

distinct reddish

Gems & Gemology 1986 Summer, p87

Corundum - Ruby

1.761

1.77

0.008

0.009

4.05

4.12

purplish red

Mercaderes, Colombia

<0.5ct, no organised mining

 

 

 

 

 

very weak red

weak red

Gems & Gemology 2000 fall p268

Corundum - Ruby

1.761

1.77

0.008

0.008

3.99

4.01

weak to rich red to purple red, 6-rayed stars

Morogoro (Tanzania)

calc-silicate rocks within marble

1.761

1.762

1.769

1.770

strong Cr

strong red to orange red

strong red to orange red (stronger than UVS)

Ruby & Sapphire, R. Hughes, 1997 

Corundum - Ruby

1.761

1.77

0.008

0.008

3.99

4.01

red of medium saturation to purplish red  of medium to weak saturation

Morogoro, Tanzania

<4ct

1.761

1.762

1.690

1.770

 

weaker red than UVL

strong red

Gems & Gemology 1991 Fall, p156-167

Corundum - Ruby

1.761

1.77

0.008

0.008

3.98

3.98

 

Pamir Mts, Tajikistan

 

1.761

1.762

1.769

1.770

Cr³+

red

strong red

Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gemmologischen Gesellschaft 1990 Dec, p201-205

Corundum - Ruby

1.761

1.772

0.008

0.009

3.91

4.02

medium to dark red, orangy red

Tan Huong-Truc Lau, Yen Bai, Vietnam

 

1.769

1.772

1.761

1.763

 

weak to strong red

weak to strong red

Gems & Gemology 2012 Fall 2012, p162

Corundum - Ruby

1.762

1.77

0.008

0.008

4

4

 

Bisil, Basha Valley, Pakistan

 

 

 

 

 

 

very weak red

moderate red

Gems & Gemology 2007 fall, p264

Corundum - Ruby

1.762

1.77

 

 

 

 

pinkish red, slightly orange red, purplish red

Chimwadzulu Hill, Malawi

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gems & Gemology 2004 spring, p71

Corundum - Ruby

1.762

1.77

0.008

0.008

3.99

4

red to purplish red

Hunza (Pakistan)

marble enclosed in gneisses and mica schists

 

 

 

 

strong Cr

strong to extremely strong red to orange red

strong to extremely strong red to orange red

Ruby & Sapphire, R. Hughes, 1997 

Corundum - Ruby

1.762

1.77

0.008

0.008

3.99

3.99

 blue,violet to purple

Hunza (Pakistan)

marble enclosed in gneisses and mica schists

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ruby & Sapphire, R. Hughes, 1997 

Corundum - Ruby

1.762

1.77

0.008

0.008

4

4

near colourless to deep red, often slightly purplish

Jagdalek, Afghanistan

in metamorphosed marble cut by granatic intrusions

 

 

 

 

strong Cr spectrum

strong red to red-orange

stronger than SW

The Journal of Gemmology 1994 Vol 24, N°4, p265

Corundum - Ruby

1.762

1.77

0.08

0.08

3.99

4.01

red, intens pink

Kohistan, Pakistan

 

 

 

 

 

Cr

 

 

Gemmologie, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gemmologischen Gesellschaft 2005 Sep, p111-114

Corundum - Ruby

1.762

1.77

0.008

0.008

3.98

3.98

 

Mong Hsu, Myanmar

 

 

 

 

 

Cr³+

 

 

Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gemmologischen Gesellschaft 1993 Sep, p63-64

Corundum - Ruby

1.762

1.771

0.008

0.009

3.92

4.07

pink, pinkish to purplish and brownish red, dark red

Tan Huong-Truc Lau area, Yen Bai Province, Vietnam

opaque to semitransparent

1.770

1.771

1.762

1.763

Cr spectra

weak to moderate red

moderate to strong red

Gems & Gemology 2011 Fall, p188-195

Corundum - Ruby

1.762

1.776

0.008

0.008

 

 

near colourless to rich red, to a dark garnet-red, no stars

Thailand, Cambodia

weathered alkali basalts

1.762

1.768

1.770

1.776

Cr spectrum

inert to weak red to orange-red

weak to moderate red to orange-red

Ruby & Sapphire, R. Hughes, 1997 

Corundum - Ruby

1.762

1.774

0.008

0.009

3.99

4.01

purple, red, pink

Snezhny deposit,  Kukurt,  Pamir Mts,  Viloyati Mukhtori Gorno-Badakhshan, Tajikistan

 

1.772

1.774

1.762

1.764

 

weak red

strong red

Gems & Gemology 2015 Summer, p160-175

Corundum - Ruby

1.763

1.775

0.008

0.011

4

4.01

brownish red

 

radioactive ! 2.27 and 2.74ct

1.763

1.764

1.771

1.775

bands for chromium and iron

inert

inert

Gems & Gemology 1998 Fall, p227

Corundum - Ruby

1.763

1.772

0.009

0.009

4

4.01

brownish red to purplish red

Songea, Tanzania

0.37 to 1.17 ct

 

 

 

 

Cr and Fe lines

inert

inert to very faint red

Gems & Gemology 1999 Winter, p215

Corundum - Ruby

1.764

1.772

0.008

0.008

4.01

4.01

brownish green, colour change (reddish brown)

Madagascar

2.19ct

 

 

 

 

450, 565, 694

 

 

Gemmologie, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gemmologischen Gesellschaft 2005 Sep, p65

Corundum - Ruby

1.766

1.77

0.008

0.008

3.95

4.01

red

Andilamena ruby deposit,  Fenoarivo East District,  Analanjirofo Region,  Toamasina Province,  Madagascar

1.04 - 7.16ct

 

 

 

 

Strong Cr spectrum with moderate to low violet transmission

very weak to weak red

medium to strong red

http://lotusgemology.com 2015

Corundum - Ruby

1.77

1.78

0.01

0.01

4.05

4.05

dark red

Malawi

high Cr content: 1.55%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gemmologischen Gesellschaft 1989 Aug, p106-107

Corundum - Ruby

 

 

 

 

 

 

light to deep red to purplish red; 6-rayed stars are possible

Mangari, Kenya

formed during regional metamorphism

 

 

 

 

strong Cr

strong to extremely strong red to orange-red

stronger than UVS

Ruby & Sapphire, R. Hughes, 1997 

Corundum - Ruby

 

 

 

 

 

 

pink to red

Montepuez, Cabo Delgado, Mozambique

to 6 ct

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gemmologie, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gemmologischen Gesellschaft 2009 58/3-4/Dec, p127-130

Corundum - Ruby

 

 

 

 

 

 

purplish red to pure red

Vatomandry, Madagascar

 

 

 

 

 

 

very weak to weak red

weak to medium red

The Journal of Gemmology 2001 Vol27, N°7, p409-416

 

TABLES

Stone

RI min

RI max

Biref min

Biref max

Dens min

Dens max

ne min

ne max

no min

no max

Reference

Corundum - Ruby

1.756

1.784

0.007

0.018

3.8

4.16

1.756

1.770

1.765

1.784

Gemme, Dati per l'identificazione, P. De Stefano et al, 1993 

Corundum - Ruby

1.757

1.779

0.008

0.01

3.95

4.1

 

 

 

 

Gemology Tools Professional 2010

Corundum

1.757

1.779

0.08

0.009

3.97

4.1

1.757

1.770

1.765

1.779

Tables of Gemstone Identification, Roger Dedeyne, Ivo Quintens, 2007 

Corundum - Ruby

1.759

1.774

0.007

0.009

3.8

4.05

1.759

1.770

1.766

1.774

http://www.geminterest.com 

Corundum - Ruby

1.76

1.775

0.008

0.009

3.95

4.05

 

 

 

 

Gemmo.eu 

Corundum - Ruby

1.762

1.778

0.008

0.008

3.97

4.03

 

 

 

 

Bestimmungstabellen für Edelsteine, Birgit Günther, 1981 

 

CAUSE OF COLOUR

Stone

Colour

Cause of colour

Reference

Corundum - Ruby

red

Cr³+ in octahedral coordination which have replaced Al³+

Fritsch&Rossman (1987) (Ruby & Sapphire, Hughes 1997)

 

MINERAL INCLUSIONS

Inclusion

Stone

Reference

allanite

Corundum - Ruby

Gems & Gemology 2015 summer, p160-175

almandine

Corundum - Ruby

Ruby & Sapphire, R. Hughes, 1997

anatase

Corundum - Ruby

The Journal Gemmology, 2004,29,3,129-147

andalusite

Corundum - Ruby

The Journal Gemmology, 2004,29,3,129-147

anhydrite

Corundum - Ruby

Gems & Gemology 2001 fall, p236

anorthite

Corundum - Ruby

The Journal Gemmology, 2004,29,3,129-147

apatite

Corundum - Ruby

Gemmological Tables, Ulrich Henn , GGA, 2004

baddeleyite

Corundum - Ruby

The Journal  of Gemmology, 2004,29,3,129-147

biotite

Corundum - Ruby

Internal World of Gemstones, Gübelin, 1983

boehmite

Corundum - Ruby

Ruby & Sapphire, R. Hughes, 1997

brookite

Corundum - Ruby

The Journal Gemmology, 2004,29,3,129-147

calcite

Corundum - Ruby

Gemmological Tables, Ulrich Henn , GGA, 2004

chalcopyrite

Corundum - Ruby

Ruby & Sapphire, R. Hughes, 1997

chlorite

Corundum - Ruby

Joel Arem, Color Encyclopedia of Gemstones, 1987

columbite

Corundum - Ruby

The Journal Gemmology, 2004,29,3,129-147

corundum

Corundum - Ruby

Ruby & Sapphire, R. Hughes, 1997

diamond

Corundum - Ruby

Gems & Gemology 1997 winter p 299

diaspore

Corundum - Ruby

The Journal Gemmology, 2004,29,3,129-147

diopside

Corundum - Ruby

Internal World of Gemstones, Gübelin, 1983

dolomite

Corundum - Ruby

Ruby & Sapphire, R. Hughes, 1997

fluorite

Corundum - Ruby

Gems & Gemology 1995 Spring, p2-25

garnet

Corundum - Ruby

Ruby & Sapphire, R. Hughes, 1997

goethite

Corundum - Ruby

The Journal Gemmology, 2004,29,3,129-147

graphite

Corundum - Ruby

Ruby & Sapphire, R. Hughes, 1997

halite

Corundum - Ruby

The Journal Gemmology, 2004,29,3,129-147

hematite

Corundum - Ruby

The Journal Gemmology, 2004,29,3,129-147

hercynite

Corundum - Ruby

The Journal Gemmology, 2004,29,3,129-147

hornblende

Corundum - Ruby

Ruby & Sapphire, R. Hughes, 1997

ilmenite

Corundum - Ruby

The Journal Gemmology, 2004,29,3,129-147

lazurite

Corundum - Ruby

Gems & Gemology Spring 2012, p51-52

limonite

Corundum - Ruby

The Journal Gemmology, 2004,29,3,129-147

lonsdaleite

Corundum - Ruby

Gems & Gemology 1997 winter p 299

magnetite

Corundum - Ruby

Joel Arem, Color Encyclopedia of Gemstones, 1987

margarite

Corundum - Ruby

The Journal Gemmology, 2004,29,3,129-147

monazite

Corundum - Ruby

Joel Arem, Color Encyclopedia of Gemstones, 1987

muscovite

Corundum - Ruby

Ruby & Sapphire, R. Hughes, 1997

nepheline

Corundum - Ruby

The Journal Gemmology, 2004,29,3,129-147

nordstrandite

Corundum - Ruby

Ruby & Sapphire, R. Hughes, 1997, G&G 1991 Fall p151

olivine

Corundum - Ruby

Ruby & Sapphire, R. Hughes, 1997

pargasite

Corundum - Ruby

Internal World of Gemstones, Gübelin, 1983

phlogopite

Corundum - Ruby

Internal World of Gemstones, Gübelin, 1983

plagioclase

Corundum - Ruby

Internal World of Gemstones, Gübelin, 1983

pyrite

Corundum - Ruby

Ruby & Sapphire, R. Hughes, 1997

pyrochlore

Corundum - Ruby

The Journal Gemmology, 2004,29,3,129-147

pyrope

Corundum - Ruby

Ruby & Sapphire, R. Hughes, 1997

pyrrhotite

Corundum - Ruby

Internal World of Gemstones, Gübelin, 1983

rutile

Corundum - Ruby

Ruby & Sapphire, R. Hughes, 1997

sapphirine

Corundum - Ruby

Ruby & Sapphire, R. Hughes, 1997

sphalerite

Corundum - Ruby

Ruby & Sapphire, R. Hughes, 1997

spinel

Corundum - Ruby

Gemmological Tables, Ulrich Henn , GGA, 2004

sulphur

Corundum - Ruby

Ruby & Sapphire, R. Hughes, 1997

titanite

Corundum - Ruby

Internal World of Gemstones, Gübelin, 1983

tourmaline

Corundum - Ruby

The Journal Gemmology, 2004,29,3,129-147

zircon

Corundum - Ruby

Gemmological Tables, Ulrich Henn , GGA, 2004

zoisite

Corundum - Ruby

The Journal Gemmology, 2004,29,3,129-147

 

LOCALITIES

STONE

LOCALITIES

REFERENCE

ruby - Corundum

Mirkhalwat mine, Jagdalak (Jagdalek; Jagdalik)

Sorobi District

Konar (Kunar; Konarh; Konarha; Nuristan) Province

Afghanistan

Gems & Gemology 2000 winter p313

ruby - Corundum

Warmankai mine, Jagdalak (Jagdalek; Jagdalik)

Sorobi District

Konar (Kunar; Konarh; Konarha; Nuristan) Province

Afghanistan

Gems & Gemology 2000 winter p313

ruby - Corundum

Gloucester Ruby mine, Barrington Tops

Gloucester County

New South Wales

Australia

Gems & Gemology 2000 winter p315

ruby - Corundum

 

Harts Ranges (Hartz Ranges)

Northern Territory

Australia

MinRec 11:271

ruby - Corundum

Phnum Ko Ngoap

Pailin District

Krong Pailin (Pailin) Municipality

Cambodja

Gems & Gemology 2000 winter p314

ruby - Corundum

Phnum O Tang

Pailin District

Krong Pailin (Pailin) Municipality

Cambodja

Gems & Gemology 2000 winter p314

ruby - Corundum

Phnum Yat

Pailin District

Krong Pailin (Pailin) Municipality

Cambodja

Gems & Gemology 2000 winter p314

ruby - Corundum

Samlot

Pailin District

Krong Pailin (Pailin) Municipality

Cambodja

Gems & Gemology 2000 winter p314

ruby - Corundum

 

 

Heilongjiang Province (Manchuria; Dongbei Region)

China

Gems & Gemology 2000 winter p314

ruby - Corundum

Yuan River (Yuan Jiang), Yuanling

Huaihua Prefecture

Hunan Province

China

Gems & Gemology 2000 winter p314

ruby - Corundum

 

 

Qinghai (Chinghai) Province

China

Gems & Gemology 2000 winter p314

ruby - Corundum

 

Ailaoshan

Yunnan Province

China

Ottens, B. - China: Mineralien, Fundstellen, Lagerstätten (2008)

ruby - Corundum

 

Mercaderes

Cauca Department

Colombia

Gems & Gemology 2000 fall p268

ruby - Corundum

 

southwest coast

 

Greenland

Gems & Gemology 2009 Winter p249

ruby - Corundum

Hindupur

Anantapur District

Andhra Pradesh

India

Gems & Gemology 2000 winter p314

ruby - Corundum

Kodegapali

Anantapur District

Andhra Pradesh

India

Gems & Gemology 2000 winter p314

ruby - Corundum

Polichettipalli

Chittoor

Andhra Pradesh

India

Gems & Gemology 2000 winter p314

ruby - Corundum

Yeracheruvupalli

Chittoor

Andhra Pradesh

India

Gems & Gemology 2000 winter p314

ruby - Corundum

 

Guntur

Andhra Pradesh

India

Gems & Gemology 2000 winter p314

ruby - Corundum

Gobbugurti

Khaman

Andhra Pradesh

India

Gems & Gemology 2000 winter p314

ruby - Corundum

Rangapur

Khaman

Andhra Pradesh

India

Gems & Gemology 2000 winter p314

ruby - Corundum

Lingampalli

Nalgonda

Andhra Pradesh

India

Gems & Gemology 2000 winter p314

ruby - Corundum

Timmapur

Nalgonda

Andhra Pradesh

India

Gems & Gemology 2000 winter p314

ruby - Corundum

 

Visakhapatnam District

Andhra Pradesh

India

Gems & Gemology 2000 winter p314

ruby - Corundum

 

Warangal

Andhra Pradesh

India

Gems & Gemology 2000 winter p314

ruby - Corundum

Dughahalli

Mysore

Karanataka

India

Gems & Gemology 2000 winter p314

ruby - Corundum

Ramanahalli

Mysore

Karanataka

India

Gems & Gemology 2000 winter p314

ruby - Corundum

Pavugada

Tumkur

Karanataka

India

Gems & Gemology 2000 winter p314

ruby - Corundum

Sriangapura

Tumkur

Karanataka

India

Gems & Gemology 2000 winter p314

ruby - Corundum

 

Bellary

Karnataka

India

Gems & Gemology 2000 winter p314

ruby - Corundum

 

Chikmagalur

Karnataka

India

Gems & Gemology 2000 winter p314

ruby - Corundum

 

Chitradurga

Karnataka

India

Gems & Gemology 2000 winter p314

ruby - Corundum

Nuggahalli

Hassan

Karnataka

India

Gems & Gemology 2000 winter p314

ruby - Corundum

 

Madikeri

Karnataka

India

Gems & Gemology 2000 winter p314

ruby - Corundum

Kollur

Mandya

Karnataka

India

Gems & Gemology 2000 winter p314

ruby - Corundum

 

Raichur

Karnataka

India

Gems & Gemology 2000 winter p314

ruby - Corundum

 

Shimoga

Karnataka

India

Gems & Gemology 2000 winter p314

ruby - Corundum

Bhopalpatnam

Bastar

Madhya Pradesh

India

Gems & Gemology 2000 winter p314

ruby - Corundum

Jagdalpur

Raipur

Madhya Pradesh

India

Gems & Gemology 2000 winter p314

ruby - Corundum

Karkota

Sidhi

Madhya Pradesh

India

Gems & Gemology 2000 winter p314

ruby - Corundum

Pipra

Sidhi

Madhya Pradesh

India

Gems & Gemology 2000 winter p314

ruby - Corundum

 

Bagdihi

Orissa

India

Gems & Gemology 2000 winter p314

ruby - Corundum

Hinghilibahal

Kalahandi

Orissa

India

Gems & Gemology 2000 winter p314

ruby - Corundum

Jhillindghar

Kalahandi

Orissa

India

Gems & Gemology 2000 winter p314

ruby - Corundum

Meghpal

Sambalpur

Orissa

India

Gems & Gemology 2000 winter p314

ruby - Corundum

Ranchipada

Sambalpur

Orissa

India

Gems & Gemology 2000 winter p314

ruby - Corundum

 

Kangayam

Tamil Nadu

India

Gems & Gemology 2000 winter p314

ruby - Corundum

Chinnadharapuram

Kangayam

Tamil Nadu

India

Gems & Gemology 2000 winter p314

ruby - Corundum

Manvadi

Karur

Tamil Nadu

India

Gems & Gemology 2000 winter p314

ruby - Corundum

Kodaicanal

Madurai

Tamil Nadu

India

Gems & Gemology 2000 winter p314

ruby - Corundum

Oddanchattram

Madurai

Tamil Nadu

India

Gems & Gemology 2000 winter p314

ruby - Corundum

 

Palni

Tamil Nadu

India

Gems & Gemology 2000 winter p314

ruby - Corundum

Chalasiramani

Salem

Tamil Nadu

India

Gems & Gemology 2000 winter p314

ruby - Corundum

Dharampuri

Salem

Tamil Nadu

India

Gems & Gemology 2000 winter p314

ruby - Corundum

Namakkal

Salem

Tamil Nadu

India

Gems & Gemology 2000 winter p314

ruby - Corundum

Sitampundi

Salem

Tamil Nadu

India

Gems & Gemology 2000 winter p314

ruby - Corundum

Chania River

Thika

Central Province

Kenya

Gems & Gemology 2000 winter p313

ruby - Corundum

 

Mangari

Coast Province

Kenya

Mercier A., et al (1999): Exotic origin of the ruby deposits of the Mangari area in SE Kenya. Ore Geology Reviews, 14, 83-104.

ruby - Corundum

Taawajah

Kitui

Eastern Province

Kenya

Gems & Gemology 2000 winter p313

ruby - Corundum

70km east of Eldoret

Lake Baringo

Kenya Rift Valley

Kenya

Gems&Gemology 2005, summer p177

ruby - Corundum

 

West Pokot

Kenya Rift Valley

Kenya

Gems & Gemology 2000 winter p313

ruby - Corundum

 

Taita Hills

Tsavo West

Kenya

Barot et al. (1995)

ruby - Corundum

Ban Huai Sai (Ban Houay Xai)

Annam Highlands

 

Laos

Gems & Gemology 2000 winter p314

ruby - Corundum

Antanifotsy pegmatite, Faratsiho Department

Vakinankaratra Region (Betafo - Antsirabé region)

Antananarivo Province

Madagascar

Gems & Gemology 2000 winter p313

ruby - Corundum

Soamiakatra, Antsirabé 2 Department

Vakinankaratra Region (Betafo - Antsirabé region)

Antananarivo Province

Madagascar

Giuliani, G., et al (2007): Mineralium Deposita 42, 251-270.

ruby - Corundum

Ilakaka gem deposit, Ilakaka, Departementa Ranohira

Horombe region

Fianarantsoa Province

Madagascar

Revue de Gemmologie A.F.G. Dec 2006 N°158 p8

ruby - Corundum

Andilamena ruby deposit, Moramanga, Andilamena Department

Alaotra Region

Toamasina (Tamatave) Province

Madagascar

http://lotusgemology.com

ruby - Corundum

Zwetkoff Mine, Ambatondrazaka

Alaotra region

Toamasina Province

Madagascar

Gemmologie 2/2001 p 89

ruby - Corundum

Charlyne mine

Vatomandry

Toamasina Province

Madagascar

Gemmologie 2/2001, p 89

ruby - Corundum

Gogogogo

Ejeda

Tuléar (Toliara) Province

Madagascar

Gems & Gemology 2000 winter p313

ruby - Corundum

Fotadrevo-Vohibory

Southwestern Region

Tuléar (Toliara) Province

Madagascar

Gems & Gemology 2000 winter p313

ruby - Corundum

Chimwadzulu Hill

Ntcheu

 

Malawi

Journal of African Earth Sciences, Volume 47, Issue 3, March 2007, Pages 153-173

ruby - Corundum


Montepuez

Cabo Delgado Province

Mozambique

Gemmologie 2009,58/3-4/Dec, p127

ruby - Corundum

Molo

Mansi

Kachin

Myanmar

Gems & Gemology 2000 winter p314

ruby - Corundum

Nanyazeik (Nayazeik; Naniazeik)

Myitkyina district

Kachin State

Myanmar

Themelis, Ted, 2008, Gems and Mines of Mogok.

ruby - Corundum

 

Belin Thandaung

Karen

Myanmar

Gems & Gemology 2000 winter p314

ruby - Corundum

Thabeitkyin

Irrawaddy river

Mandalay

Myanmar

http://www.ruby-sapphire.com/

ruby - Corundum

 

Mogok

Mandalay

Myanmar

Geïllustreerde Mineralen Encyclopedie, Petr Korbel & Milan Novak, 2001

ruby - Corundum

Ohngaing (Ohn Gaing, Ohn Kai)

Mogok

Mandalay

Myanmar

Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok

ruby - Corundum

Sagyin Hills

Madaya

Sagaing

Myanmar

Gems & Gemology 2000 winter p314

ruby - Corundum

Wa Byu Taung

Thabeitkyin

Sagaing

Myanmar

Gems & Gemology 2000 winter p314

ruby - Corundum

Dattaw Hill

Mogok

Sagaing District

Myanmar

Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok

ruby - Corundum

Dawna Hills

Hlaingbwe River Valley

Sagaing Division

Myanmar

Gems & Gemology 2000 winter p314

ruby - Corundum

Wan Ying

Lai Hka

Shan State

Myanmar

Gems & Gemology 2000 winter p314

ruby - Corundum

Wan Hat

Langhko

Shan State

Myanmar

Gems & Gemology 2000 winter p314

ruby - Corundum

 

Momeik

Shan State

Myanmar

Gems & Gemology 2000 winter p314

ruby - Corundum

 

Möng Hsu (Maing Hsu)

Shan State

Myanmar

The Journal of Gemmology 1994, 24, 1, p3-40

ruby - Corundum

Nawarat

Namhsan

Shan State

Myanmar

Gems & Gemology 2000 winter p314

ruby - Corundum

 

Yawnghwe

Shan State

Myanmar

Gems & Gemology 2000 winter p314

ruby - Corundum

Chumar Mines (Chhumar Mines)

Dhading District

Bagmati Zone

Nepal

http://www.dmgnepal.gov.np/

ruby - Corundum

Dhading

Ganesh Himal

Gandaki

Nepal

Gems & Gemology 2000 winter p314

ruby - Corundum

Nangimali (Nangimali Top; Lower Khora marble deposits), Neelum Valley

Muzaffarabad district

Azad Kashmir

Pakistan

Dudley Blauwet, (2004) "Pakistan: Minerals, Mountains & Majesty", Lapis International, East Hampton

ruby - Corundum

Bisil

Basha Valley

Baltistan

Pakistan

Gems & Gemology 2007 fall p264

ruby - Corundum

 

Hunza Valley

Hunza district

Pakistan

Joel Arem, Color Encyclopedia of Gemstones, 1987

ruby - Corundum

Rai-Iz (Raiz), Polar Urals

Tyumenskaya Oblast'

Siberia

Russia

E.Ya. Kievlenko, Geology of gems, 2003, p. 57

ruby - Corundum

Maskeliya

Nuwara Eliya

Central Province

Sri Lanka

Gems & Gemology 2000 winter p315

ruby - Corundum

Eheliyagoda

Ratnapura

Sabaragamuwa Province

Sri Lanka

Gems & Gemology 2000 winter p315

ruby - Corundum

Pelmadulla

Ratnapura

Sabaragamuwa Province

Sri Lanka

Gems & Gemology 2000 winter p315

ruby - Corundum

Rakwana

Ratnapura

Sabaragamuwa Province

Sri Lanka

Gems & Gemology 2000 winter p315

ruby - Corundum

Embilipitiya

Monaragala

Southern Province

Sri Lanka

Gems & Gemology 2000 winter p315

ruby - Corundum

Okkampitiya

Monaragala

Southern Province

Sri Lanka

Gems & Gemology 2000 winter p315

ruby - Corundum

Nadezhda

Pamir Mts

Viloyati Mukhtori Gorno-Badakhshan

Tajikistan

Gems & Gemology 2000 winter p315

ruby - Corundum

near Murgab, Rangkul

Pamir Mts

Viloyati Mukhtori Gorno-Badakhshan

Tajikistan

Gems & Gemology 2000 winter p315

ruby - Corundum

Turakuloma

Pamir Mts

Viloyati Mukhtori Gorno-Badakhshan

Tajikistan

Gems & Gemology 2000 winter p315

ruby - Corundum

Snezhny deposit, Kukurt

Pamir Mts

Viloyati Mukhtori Gorno-Badakhshan

Tajikistan

E.Ya. Kievlenko (2003) Geology of gems, p. 50.

ruby - Corundum

Lelatema

Babati

Arusha Region

Tanzania

Gems & Gemology 2000 winter p314

ruby - Corundum

Magara

Lake Manyara

Arusha Region

Tanzania

Emeralds of the World English extraLapis Vol. 2 2002 pp24-35

ruby - Corundum

 

Lossogonoi Hill

Arusha Region

Tanzania

Gems & Gemology 2000 winter p314

ruby - Corundum

 

Ngorongoro

Arusha Region

Tanzania

Gems & Gemology 2000 winter p314

ruby - Corundum

 

Kilosa

Dodoma

Tanzania

Gems & Gemology 2000 winter p314

ruby - Corundum

 

Mpwapwa

Dodoma

Tanzania

Gems & Gemology 2000 winter p314

ruby - Corundum

Elkunulesilali

Longido

Kilimanjaro Region

Tanzania

Gems & Gemology 2000 winter p314

ruby - Corundum

Lomwinyi

Longido

Kilimanjaro Region

Tanzania

Gems & Gemology 2000 winter p314

ruby - Corundum

Mdarara

Longido

Kilimanjaro Region

Tanzania

Gems & Gemology 2000 winter p314

ruby - Corundum

Olgira Hills

Longido

Kilimanjaro Region

Tanzania

Gems & Gemology 2000 winter p314

ruby - Corundum

 

Same

Kilimanjaro Region

Tanzania

Gems & Gemology 2000 winter p314

ruby - Corundum

 

 

Lindl

Tanzania

Gems & Gemology 2000 winter p314

ruby - Corundum

 

Gairo

Morogoro Region

Tanzania

Gems & Gemology 2000 winter p314

ruby - Corundum

 

Luande

Morogoro Region

Tanzania

Gems & Gemology 2000 winter p314

ruby - Corundum

 

Magogoni

Morogoro Region

Tanzania

Gems & Gemology 2000 winter p314

ruby - Corundum

 

Mahenge

Morogoro Region

Tanzania

Gems & Gemology 2000 winter p314

ruby - Corundum

 

Matombo

Morogoro Region

Tanzania

Gems & Gemology 2000 winter p314

ruby - Corundum

 

Mvuha

Morogoro Region

Tanzania

Gems & Gemology 2000 winter p314

ruby - Corundum

 

Mwarazi

Morogoro Region

Tanzania

Gems & Gemology 2000 winter p314

ruby - Corundum

 

Ndundu

Pwani

Tanzania

Gems & Gemology 2000 winter p314

ruby - Corundum

Amanimakoro

Songea

Ruvuma Region

Tanzania

Gems & Gemology 2000 winter p314

ruby - Corundum

Kwachaga

Hadeni

Tanga

Tanzania

Gems & Gemology 2000 winter p314

ruby - Corundum

 

Umba Valley

Tanga

Tanzania

Gems & Gemology 2000 winter p314

ruby - Corundum

 

Usambara Mountains

Tanga

Tanzania

Gems & Gemology 2000 winter p314

ruby - Corundum

 

Muhuwesi River

Tunduru

Tanzania

Gems & Gemology 2000 winter p314

ruby - Corundum

Ba Waen

 

Chanthaburi Province

Thailand

Gems & Gemology 2000 winter p315

ruby - Corundum

Bo I Rem

 

Chanthaburi Province

Thailand

Gems & Gemology 2000 winter p315

ruby - Corundum

Bo Rai

 

Chanthaburi Province

Thailand

Gems & Gemology 2000 winter p315

ruby - Corundum

Na Wong

 

Chanthaburi Province

Thailand

Gems & Gemology 2000 winter p315

ruby - Corundum

Nong Bon

 

Chanthaburi Province

Thailand

Gems & Gemology 2000 winter p315

ruby - Corundum

Tok Prom

 

Chanthaburi Province

Thailand

Gems & Gemology 2000 winter p315

ruby - Corundum

Quy Chau (Ke Bon; Phu Qui Chau) district

Bu Khang

Nghe An (Nghe Tinh) Province

Vietnam

Gems & Gemology 2012 Fall 2012, p165

ruby - Corundum

Khoan Thong

Luc Yen

Yen Bai Province

Vietnam

Gems & Gemology 2000 winter p315

ruby - Corundum

Nuoc Ngap

Luc Yen

Yen Bai Province

Vietnam

Gems & Gemology 2000 winter p315

ruby - Corundum

 

Tan Huong-Truc Lau area

Yen Bai Province

Vietnam

Gems & Gemology Fall 2011, p182-195

 

CHEMICAL DATA

Stone

Colour

Locality

Reference

SiO2

Al2O3

MnO

MgO

FeO

TiO2

CaO

Na2O

Cr2O3

V2O3

Ga2O3

ZnO

Fe2O3

NiO

La2O3

SnO2

Corundum - Ruby

red

 

Afghanistan

Gems & Gemology 1998 Summer p88-91

 

98.31

0.002

 

0.07

0.045

0.784

 

0.35

0.009

0.006

 

 

 

 

 

Corundum - Ruby

red

Jegdalek

Afghanistan

Gems & Gemology 2000 Summer p123

 

96.25

 

 

0.95

0.05

 

 

1.11

0.04

0.03

 

 

 

 

 

Corundum - Ruby

red

Barrington Tops, New South Wales

Australia

The Australian Gemmologist 2007, Vol23, N°3,p103

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

0.28

 

 

 

0.44

 

 

 

Corundum - Ruby

red

Bingara, New South Wales

Australia

The Australian Gemmologist 2007, Vol23, N°3,p111

 

 

 

 

 

0.81

 

 

0.68

 

0.02

 

0.71

 

 

 

Corundum - Ruby

light red

Cudgegong River, New South Wales

Australia

The Australian Gemmologist 2007, Vol23, N°3,p106

 

 

 

 

 

0.2

 

 

0.27

 

0.01

 

0.52

 

 

 

Corundum - Ruby

red

Cudgegong River, New South Wales

Australia

The Australian Gemmologist 2007, Vol23, N°3,p106

 

 

 

 

 

0.25

 

 

0.45

 

0.01

 

0.49

 

 

0.35

Corundum - Ruby

red

Macquarie River, New South Wales

Australia

The Australian Gemmologist 2007, Vol23, N°3,p105

 

 

 

 

 

0.03

 

 

0.52

 

0.01

 

1.02

 

 

0.44

Corundum - Ruby

red

Macquarie River, New South Wales

Australia

The Australian Gemmologist 2007, Vol23, N°3,p105

 

 

 

 

 

0.09

 

 

0.41

 

0.01

 

0.39

 

 

0.33

Corundum - Ruby

pink red

Swan Brook, New England, New South Wales

Australia

The Australian Gemmologist 2007, Vol23, N°3,p109

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

0.11

 

0.04

 

0.8

 

 

0.01

Corundum - Ruby

orange red

Swan Brook, New England, New South Wales

Australia

The Australian Gemmologist 2007, Vol23, N°3,p109

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

0.11

 

 

 

0.09

 

 

0.01

Corundum - Ruby

deep red

Swan Brook, New England, New South Wales

Australia

The Australian Gemmologist 2007, Vol23, N°3,p109

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

0.47

 

0.04

 

0.61

 

 

0.44

Corundum - Ruby

red

Tumbarumba

Australia

The Australian Gemmologist 2007, Vol23, N°3,p113

 

 

 

 

 

0.12

 

 

0.41

 

 

 

0.67

 

 

 

Corundum - Ruby

red

 

Cambodia

Gems & Gemology 1998 Summer p88-91

 

99.09

0.003

 

0.439

0.021

0.018

 

0.417

0.004

0.006

 

 

 

 

 

Corundum - Ruby

red

West Pailin

Cambodia

The Australian Gemmologist 2009,Vol 23, N°9, 373-432

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Corundum - Ruby

red

Southern Yunnan

China

Gems & Gemology 1998 Summer p88-91

 

98.88

0.01

 

0.042

0.016

0.068

 

0.95

0.02

0.008

 

 

 

 

 

Corundum - Ruby

cat's eye

 

East Africa

The Journal of Gemmology 1995, Vol 24, N°8, p 574

0.22

98.65

 

 

0.06

0.06

 

 

0.45

0.05

 

 

 

 

 

 

Corundum - Ruby

red

 

India

Gems & Gemology 1998 Summer p88-91

 

99.1

0.002

 

0.502

0.017

0.01

 

0.358

0.006

0.007

 

 

 

 

 

Corundum - Ruby

 

South India

India

The Journal of Gemmology 2003, Vol 28,N°7, p404

 

 

 

 

 

0.006

 

 

1.359

0.003

0.002

 

0.509

 

 

 

Corundum - Ruby

red

 

Kenya

Gems & Gemology 1998 Summer p88-91

 

98.22

0.005

 

0.02

0.033

0.068

 

0.675

0.018

0.033

 

 

 

 

 

Corundum - Ruby

 

Ilakaka

Madagascar

Revue de Gemmologie A.F.G. Dec 2006 N°158 p8

 

97.66

 

 

0.198

 

 

 

0.328

 

0.014

 

 

 

 

 

Corundum - Ruby

 

Ilakaka

Madagascar

Revue de Gemmologie A.F.G. Dec 2006 N°158 p8

 

97.85

 

 

0.259

0.007

 

 

0.222

0

0.013

 

 

 

 

 

Corundum - Ruby

 

Soamiakatra

Madagascar

Revue de Gemmologie A.F.G. Dec 2006 N°158 p8

 

97.8

 

 

0.527

0.054

 

 

0.798

 

0.009

 

 

 

 

 

Corundum - Ruby

 

Soamiakatra

Madagascar

Revue de Gemmologie A.F.G. Dec 2006 N°158 p8

 

97.18

 

 

0.513

0.027

 

 

0.83

0.086

0.011

 

 

 

 

 

Corundum - Ruby

 

Soamiakatra

Madagascar

Revue de Gemmologie A.F.G. Dec 2006 N°158 p8

 

98.16

 

 

0.521

0.028

 

 

0.851

0.06

0.01

 

 

 

 

 

Corundum - Ruby

 

Soamiakatra

Madagascar

Revue de Gemmologie A.F.G. Dec 2006 N°158 p8

 

97.7

 

 

0.525

0.042

 

 

0.432

0.062

0.007

 

 

 

 

 

Corundum - Ruby

 

Soamiakatra

Madagascar

Revue de Gemmologie A.F.G. Dec 2006 N°158 p8

 

96.64

 

 

0.509

0.042

 

 

0.989

0.042

0.003

 

 

 

 

 

Corundum - Ruby

 

Soamiakatra

Madagascar

Revue de Gemmologie A.F.G. Dec 2006 N°158 p8

 

97.55

 

 

0.503

0.022

 

 

0.68

0

0.011

 

 

 

 

 

Corundum - Ruby

 

Soamiakatra

Madagascar

Revue de Gemmologie A.F.G. Dec 2006 N°158 p8

 

99.61

 

 

0.327

0.06

 

 

0.035

0.006

0.007

 

 

 

 

 

Corundum - Ruby

 

Soamiakatra

Madagascar

Revue de Gemmologie A.F.G. Dec 2006 N°158 p8

 

98.27

 

 

0.562

0.099

 

 

0.383

0.007

 

 

 

 

 

 

Corundum - Ruby

&nb