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INVESTIGATIONS

Stone

RI min

RI max

Biref min

Biref max

Dens min

Dens max

Colour

Locality

Info

nx min

nx max

ny min

ny max

nz min

nz max

Spectrum

UVS

UVL

Reference

serpentine

1.55

1.55

 

 

2.5

2.67

green to yellowish green to yellow colour, sometimes with white or grey veins and black spots

Val Malenco, Italy

spot RI, 7.35ct to 13.78ct, opaque, hardness 4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

inert

inert

Gems & Gemology 2016 Spring, p38-49

Antigorite -  serpentine group

1.56

1.562

0.002

0.002

2.59

2.59

greenish yellow

New Zealand

hardness 5-6, fracture splintery

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

inert

inert

The Australian Gemmologist 1986 Vol 16, Nr 1, p25-27

Antigorite -  serpentine group

1.56

1.56

 

 

2.57

2.58

deep green

Booyo, South Korea

translucent, hardness 5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Journal of Gemmology 1998 Vol 26, N°3, p156-164

Antigorite -  serpentine group

1.563

1.567

0.004

0.004

2.55

2.55

yellowish green

Afghanistan

beads, translucent

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gems & Gemology 1998 winter, p 297

Antigorite -  serpentine group

 

 

 

 

 

 

light yellow

 

artifact 4cm, resembling Libyan desert glass

 

 

 

 

 

 

no features

inert

slightly yellow

Gems & Gemology 2008 summer, p181

Lizardite -serpentine group

 

 

 

 

 

 

orange

Wessels Mine, South Africa

0.80-1.88ct, translucent

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Journal of Gemmology 2014 34(2), p98-99

 

TABLES

Stone

RI min

RI max

Biref min

Biref max

Dens min

Dens max

nx min

 nx max

ny min

ny max

nz min

nz max

Reference

serpentine

1.49

1.57

0.009

0.009

2.51

2.63

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bestimmungstabellen für Edelsteine, Birgit Günther, 1981 

Williamsite - serpentine group

1.5

1.564

 

 

2.44

2.8

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gemology Tools Professional 2010

serpentine

1.529

1.574

0.004

0.009

2.5

2.6

1.529

1.567

1.530

1.573

1.537

1.574

Gemmological Tables, Ulrich Henn, 2004 

serpentine

1.532

1.571

0.001

0.014

2.4

2.8

1.532

1.569

 

 

1.545

1.571

Gemme, Dati per l'identificazione, P. De Stefano et al, 1993 

serpentine

1.532

1.571

0.001

0.014

2.53

2.61

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://www.gemmology.be 

Chrysotile - serpentine group

1.532

1.556

0.013

0.013

2.55

2.55

1.532

1.549

 

 

1.545

1.556

Joel Arem, Color Encyclopedia of Gemstones, 1987 

Chrysotile - serpentine group

1.532

1.556

0.013

0.013

2.4

2.62

1.532

1.549

 

 

1.545

1.556

http://www.geminterest.com 

Chrysotile - serpentine group

1.532

1.556

0.013

0.024

2.53

2.65

1.532

1.544

1.533

1.543

1.545

1.556

Tables of Gemstone Identification, Roger Dedeyne, Ivo Quintens, 2007 

Chrysotile - serpentine group

1.532

1.556

0.013

0.013

2.55

2.55

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gemology Tools Professional 2010

Williamsite - serpentine group

1.532

1556

0.013

0.024

2.53

2.65

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tables of Gemstone Identification, Roger Dedeyne, Ivo Quintens, 2007 

Lizardite -serpentine group

1.538

1.56

0.008

0.008

2.51

2.55

1.538

1.554

 

 

1.546

1.560

Joel Arem, Color Encyclopedia of Gemstones, 1987 

Lizardite -serpentine group

1.538

1.56

0.008

0.008

2.4

2.62

1.538

1.554

 

 

1.546

1.560

http://www.geminterest.com 

Lizardite -serpentine group

1.538

1.568

0.005

0.022

2.55

2.6

1.538

1.554

 

 

1.546

1.568

Tables of Gemstone Identification, Roger Dedeyne, Ivo Quintens, 2007 

Lizardite -serpentine group

1.538

1.56

0.008

0.008

2.55

2.55

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gemology Tools Professional 2010

serpentine

1.544

1.572

0.001

0.015

2.5

2.75

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gemmo.eu 2016

Antigorite -bowenite- serpentine group

1.555

1.573

0.004

0.016

2.5

2.67

1.555

1.567

1.560

1.570

1.560

1.573

Tables of Gemstone Identification, Roger Dedeyne, Ivo Quintens, 2007 

Antigorite -bowenite- serpentine group

1.555

1.575

0.012

0.016

2.58

2.63

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gemmo.eu 2013

Antigorite -bowenite- serpentine group

1.56

1.56

 

 

2.58

2.58

 

 

 

 

 

 

John Sinkakas, Gemstone and mineral data book,1972 

serpentine

1.56

1.56

 

 

2.58

2.8

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tabellen zur Edelstein-Bestimmung, Pschichholz FGA, 1975 

Antigorite -bowenite- serpentine group

1.56

1.571

0.001

0.014

2.58

2.67

1.560

1.560

1.566

1.566

1.571

1.571

Joel Arem, Color Encyclopedia of Gemstones, 1987 

Antigorite -bowenite- serpentine group

1.56

1.571

0.014

0.014

2.58

2.62

1.560

1.560

1.566

1.566

1.571

1.571

http://www.geminterest.com 

Antigorite -bowenite- serpentine group

1.56

1.56

 

 

2.5

2.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gems, R Webster, 5th edition 1994 

Antigorite -bowenite- serpentine group

1.56

1.571

0.005

0.006

2.61

2.61

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gemology Tools Professional 2010

Antigorite -bowenite- serpentine group

1.56

1.571

0.014

0.014

2.61

2.61

 

 

 

 

 

 

Michael O'Donoghue, Gems: Their Sources, Descriptions and Identification (2006),  873pp 

Clinochrysotile - serpentine group

1.569

1.57

0.001

0.001

2.53

2.53

1.569

1.569

 

 

1.570

1.570

Joel Arem, Color Encyclopedia of Gemstones, 1987 

Clinochrysotile - serpentine group

1.569

1.57

0

0.001

2.4

2.62

1.569

1.569

 

 

1.570

1.570

http://www.geminterest.com 

Clinochrysotile - serpentine group

1.569

1.57

0.001

0.001

2.53

2.53

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tables of Gemstone Identification, Roger Dedeyne, Ivo Quintens, 2007 

Clinochrysotile - serpentine group

1.569

1.57

0.001

0.001

2.53

2.53

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gemology Tools Professional 2010

Williamsite - serpentine group

1.57

1.57

 

 

2.61

2.61

 

 

 

 

 

 

John Sinkakas, Gemstone and mineral data book,1972 

Williamsite - serpentine group

1.57

1.57

 

 

2.61

2.61

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gems, R Webster, 5th edition 1994 

 

CAUSE OF COLOUR

Stone

Colour

Cause of colour

Reference

Lizardite -serpentine group

orange

micro-inclusions of hematite

The Journal of Gemmology 2014, Vol 34, No.2, p98

 

MINERAL INCLUSIONS

Inclusion

Stone

Reference

hematite

Lizardite -serpentine group

The Journal of Gemmology 2014, 34(2), p98-99

magnetite

Antigorite - serpentine group

The Journal of Gemmology 1998, Vol 26, N°3 p156-1.64

 

LOCALITIES

 

CHEMICAL DATA (%)

Stone

Colour

Locality

Reference

SiO2

Al2O3

MnO

MgO

TiO2

CaO

Na2O

Cr2O3

Fe2O3

K2O

H2O

NiO

P2O5

Antigorite - serpentine group

 

 

Venezuela

The Journal of Gemmology 1998, Vol 26, N°3, p160

43.6

1.03

0.04

41

0.01

0.05

0.01

0.02

1.71

0.03

12.26

0.16

 

Antigorite - serpentine group

deep green

Booyo

South Korea

The Journal of Gemmology 1998, Vol 26, N°3, p160

42.49

1.3

0.12

39.08

0.01

0.68

 

 

3.85

0.06

 

 

0.06

Lizardite -serpentine group

 

Ulsan

South Korea

The Journal of Gemmology 1998, Vol 26, N°3, p160

38.04

0.86

0.11

37.47

0.01

0.24

0.01

 

7.62

0.01

 

 

0.01

Lizardite -serpentine group

 

Ulsan

South Korea

The Journal of Gemmology 1998, Vol 26, N°3, p160

39.45

1.07

0.1

38.48

0.02

0.63

0.25

 

7.72

0.02

 

 

0.11