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INVESTIGATIONS

Stone

RI min

RI max

Dens min

Dens max

Colour

Location

Info

Spectrum

UVS

UVL

Reference

Synthetic spinel - flux grown

1.712

1.716

3.58

3.66

blue

Russia

chelsea: red to orangy red

 

stronger than UVL

weak to moderate, slightly chalky red to reddish purple

Gems & Gemology 1993 summer p81-98

Synthetic spinel - flux grown

1.714

1.715

3.57

3.64

pinkish red, lavender, violetish blue

Russia

abscence of anomalous birefringence, pulling method

 

intense red

intense red

http://www.gemresearch.ch/news/2015-09-09_SyntheticSpinel/Spinel_New_Synthetic.pdf 2015

Synthetic spinel - flux grown

1.716

1.722

3.58

3.64

red

Russia

chelsea: red to orangy red

no organ-pipe

moderate to strong slightly orangy red

strong purplish red to slightly orangy red

Gems & Gemology 1993 summer p81-98

Synthetic spinel - flux grown

1.716

1.716

3.62

3.62

red

 

 

Cr³+

 

 

Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gemmologischen Gesellschaft 1990 Apr, p45-48

Synthetic spinel - flux grown

1.72

1.72

3.6

3.6

pinkish red

 

1.53ct

 

moderate red

strong red

ACAM lab  1510

Synthetic spinel - Verneuil

1.728

1.728

3.65

3.65

green-blue

 

4.28ct

cobalt (3 bands)

bluish green

red

ACAM lab  2111

Synthetic spinel - Verneuil - spinel group

1.728

1.728

3.64

3.64

pink

 

15ct, anomalous birefringence, coloured by iron

 

inert

inert

Gems & Gemology 2007 Summer, p175

Synthetic spinel - Verneuil

1.728

1.728

 

 

blue

 

9.75ct, strong anomalous double refraction using the polariscope, Quench-Crackled

absorption bands at 540, 580, and 635 nm

strong bluish white

strong red

Gems & Gemology 2016 Spring, p 76

Synthetic spinel - Verneuil

1.729

1.729

3.65

3.65

green

 

 

 

strong white-green

inert

ACAM lab  1955

Synthetic spinel - Verneuil

1.735

1.735

3.65

3.65

light blue

 

5.67ct

 

bluish green

inert

ACAM lab  2109

 

TABLES

Stone

RI min

RI max

Dens min

Dens max

Reference

Synthetic spinel - flux grown

1.7

1.735

3.57

3.7

Gemology Tools Professional 2010

Synthetic spinel -sintered

1.711

1.725

3.52

3.54

Tables of Gemstone Identification, Roger Dedeyne, Ivo Quintens, 2007 

Synthetic spinel - flux grown

1.713

1.72

3.59

3.63

Gemme, Dati per l'identificazione, P. De Stefano et al, 1993 

Synthetic spinel - flux grown

1.715

1.715

3.63

3.63

http://www.gemmology.be 

Synthetic spinel - flux grown

1.715

1.722

3.54

3.65

http://www.geminterest.com 

Synthetic spinel - flux grown

1.715

1.735

3.58

3.63

Tables of Gemstone Identification, Roger Dedeyne, Ivo Quintens, 2007 

Synthetic spinel - flux grown

1.716

1.719

3.58

3.62

Gemmological Tables, Ulrich Henn, 2004 

Synthetic spinel - flux grown

1.716

1.719

3.6

3.6

Bestimmungstabellen für Edelsteine, Birgit Günther, 2008 

Red Synthetic spinel - Verneuil

1.72

1.722

3.6

3.66

http://www.gemmology.be 

Synthetic spinel - Verneuil

1.72

1.74

3.59

3.78

Gemme, Dati per l'identificazione, P. De Stefano et al, 1993 

Synthetic spinel - Verneuil

1.72

1.74

3.58

3.8

Gemmological Tables, Ulrich Henn, 2004 

Synthetic spinel - Verneuil

1.72

1.73

3.6

3.7

http://www.geminterest.com 

Synthetic spinel - Verneuil

1.72

1.74

3.61

3.78

Bestimmungstabellen für Edelsteine, Birgit Günther, 2008 

Synthetic spinel - Verneuil

1.72

1.74

3.52

3.66

Gemology Tools Professional 2010

blue  Synthetic spinel Verneuil

1.723

1.729

3.63

3.67

http://www.gemmology.be 

Synthetic spinel - Verneuil

1.723

1.73

3.6

3.67

Tables of Gemstone Identification, Roger Dedeyne, Ivo Quintens, 2007 

Synthetic spinel - Verneuil

1.723

1.73

3.61

3.67

Gemmo.eu 2013

Synthetic spinel -sintered

1.725

1.725

3.52

3.52

Gemme, Dati per l'identificazione, P. De Stefano et al, 1993 

yellow, pink, green Synthetic spinel Verneuil

1.728

1.728

3.64

3.64

http://www.gemmology.be 

 

CAUSE OF COLOUR

Stone

Colour

Cause of colour

Reference

synthetic spinel

green

Cr³+ in octahedral coordination

Gems & Gemology Summer 1988

 

CHEMICAL DATA (%)

Stone

Colour

Locality

Reference

Al2O3

MnO

MgO

TiO2

Fe2O3

K2O

H2O

NiO

Synthetic spinel - flux grown

purplish red

 

Russia

Gems & Gemology 1993 Summer p95

70.64

 

27.7

 

0.47

0.05

0.02

0.01

Synthetic spinel - flux grown

purplish red

 

Russia

Gems & Gemology 1993 Summer p95

70.31

0.02

27.38

0.05

0.49

0.04

 

0.01

Synthetic spinel - flux grown

purplish red

 

Russia

Gems & Gemology 1993 Summer p95

71.07

 

27.59

0.04

0.34

0.03

0.03

 

Synthetic spinel - Verneuil

blue

 

 

Gems & Gemology 1984 Spring p41

89.2

 

10.71

 

0.03

 

 

 

Synthetic spinel - flux grown

blue

 

 

Gems & Gemology 1984 Spring p41

73.02

 

26.55