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INVESTIGATIONS

Stone

RI min

RI max

Biref min

Biref max

Dens min

Dens max

Colour

Locality

Info

nx min

nx max

ny min

ny max

nz min

nz max

Spectrum

UVS

UVL

Reference

Turquoise impregnated

1.57

1.57

 

 

2.21

2.7

apple-green

China

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gemmologie, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gemmologischen Gesellschaft 2001 Jun, p109-111

Turquoise

1.59

1.6

 

 

2.64

2.69

greenish blue

Nacozari, Sonora, Mexico

5.79 - 12.32 ct, cabochons, spot RI

 

 

 

 

 

 

absorption band at 430 nm

inert

uneven moderate chalky blue

Gems & Gemology 2007 Spring, p75-76

Turquoise impregnated

1.59

1.59

 

 

2.58

2.58

green

 

sphere 15.21 gr, impregnated and dyed

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

inert

inert, some lines white

Gems & Gemology 2015 Fall, p 344-345

synthetic Turquoise

1.592

1.592

 

 

2.635

2.635

 

 

Gilson, cabochon, >4ct

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Journal of Gemmology 1972 N°1, p 5

Turquoise impregnated

1.6

1.6

 

 

2.48

2.48

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

430 band, shadow 460

inert

inert

Gems & Gemology 2007 summer p149

Turquoise

1.6

1.6

 

 

2.47

2.47

 

 

spot RI, tablet 22 x20x6 mm, natural and not treated

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gems & Gemology 2005 Winter, p348-349

Turquoise

1.6

1.62

 

 

2.27

2.85

greenish blue to blue, some with brown matrix

 

treated by a proprietary process developed by Eljen Stones (Reno, Nevada), cabochons 5.93 - 12.62ct, spot RI

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gems & Gemology 2009 Summer, p140

Turquoise

1.6

1.6

 

 

 

 

greenish blue with patches of metallic material

 

bead 78.60ct, turquoise with simulated matrix (crushed pyrite)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gems & Gemology 2016 Winter, p420

synthetic Turquoise

1.604

1.604

 

 

2.72

2.74

pale blue

 

Gilson, cabochon, 1.275ct + 12 stones, small angular blue particles in a whitish groundmass

 

 

 

 

 

 

trace of 423nm line

 

 

The Journal of Gemmology 1973 N°5, p 157-160

Turquoise

1.61

1.62

 

 

2.65

2.75

dark greenish blue to yellowish green, 5% sky-blue

90 km NE of Bardsir, Kerman, Iran

new source 2005

 

 

 

 

 

 

430nm band

inert

weak blue

Gems & Gemology 2008 summer p185-186

Turquoise

1.61

1.62

 

 

2.57

2.72

medium bluish green, light bluish green, light green, yellowish green, rarely azure blue

Zhushan County, China

hardness 5 - 5.5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gems & Gemology 2012 Fall, p200-203

Turquoise

1.62

1.64

 

 

2.696

2.698

light sky blue, bluish green

Hubei Province, China

hardness 4.6-5.5

 

 

 

 

 

 

432 band and 460nm band

weak greenish yellow

weak greenish yellow

Gems & Gemology 1986 spring p35-37

synthetic Turquoise

1.62

1.62

 

 

 

 

blue

 

beads, "cream of wheat" texture

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gems & Gemology 2005 fall, p261-262

 

TABLES

Stone

RI min

RI max

Biref min

Biref max

Dens min

Dens max

nx min

 nx max

ny min

ny max

nz min

nz max

Reference

Turquoise reconstructed

1.44

1.45

 

 

2.4

2.6

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tables of Gemstone Identification, Roger Dedeyne, Ivo Quintens, 2007 

Turquoise synthetic

1.509

1.605



2.65

2.75

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gemmo.eu

Turquoise impregnated

1.56

1.56

 

 

1.85

2.5

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://www.geminterest.com 

Turquoise synthetic

1.59

1.6

 

 

2.68

2.75

 

 

 

 

 

 

Joel Arem, Color Encyclopedia of Gemstones, 1987 

Turquoise synthetic

1.59

1.6

 

 

2.68

2.75

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://www.gemmology.be 

Turquoise synthetic

1.59

1.65

0.04

0.04

2.68

2.75

1.590

1.600

 

 

1.650

1.650

Tables of Gemstone Identification, Roger Dedeyne, Ivo Quintens, 2007 

Turquoise synthetic

1.59

1.61

 

 

2.68

2.75

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gemology Tools Professional 2010

Turquoise

1.608

1.652

0.038

0.042

2.3

2.85

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gemmo.eu

Turquoise

1.61

1.65

0.04

0.04

2.6

2.9

1.61

1.61

1.62

1.62

1.65

1.65

Joel Arem, Color Encyclopedia of Gemstones, 1987 

Turquoise

1.61

1.65

0.04

0.04

2.31

2.84

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bestimmungstabellen für Edelsteine, Birgit Günther, 1981 

Turquoise synthetic

1.61

1.65

0.04

0.04

2.72

2.74

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bestimmungstabellen für Edelsteine, Birgit Günther, 1981 

Turquoise synthetic

1.61

1.65

0.04

0.04

2.68

2.75

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gemme, Dati per l'identificazione, P. De Stefano et al, 1993 

Turquoise

1.61

1.65

0.04

0.04

2.6

2.9

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gemme, Dati per l'identificazione, P. De Stefano et al, 1993 

Turquoise

1.61

1.65

0.04

0.04

2.14

2.85

1.610

1.610

1.620

1.620

1.650

1.650

Gemmological Tables, Ulrich Henn, 2004 

Turquoise

1.61

1.65

0.04

0.04

2.4

2.81

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://www.gemmology.be 

Turquoise synthetic

1.61

1.65

0.04

0.04

2.72

2.74

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tabellen zur Edelstein-Bestimmung, Pschichholz FGA, 1975 

Turquoise

1.61

1.65

0.04

0.04

2.6

2.85

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tabellen zur Edelstein-Bestimmung, Pschichholz FGA, 1975 

Turquoise

1.61

1.65

0.04

0.04

2.56

2.9

1.610

1.610

1.620

1.620

1.650

1.650

http://www.geminterest.com 

Turquoise

1.61

1.65

0.04

0.04

2.6

2.85

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gems, R Webster, 5th edition 1994 

Turquoise

1.61

1.65

0.04

0.04

2.6

2.9

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tables of Gemstone Identification, Roger Dedeyne, Ivo Quintens, 2007 

Turquoise

1.61

1.65

 

 

2.4

2.9

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gemology Tools Professional 2010

Turquoise

1.63

1.63

0

0

2.6

2.8

 

 

 

 

 

 

John Sinkakas, Gemstone and mineral data book,1972 

 

CAUSE OF COLOUR

Stone

Colour

Cause of colour

Reference

Turquoise

blue

Cu²+ in octahedral coordination

Gems & Gemology Summer 1988

 

MINERAL INCLUSIONS

Inclusion

Stone

Reference

chalcopyrite

Turquoise

Gems & Gemology 2008 summer p185-186

francevillite

Turquoise

Gems & Gemology Winter 2009 p294-295

kaolinite

Turquoise

Gems & Gemology Fall 2012, p201

pyrite

Turquoise

Gems & Gemology 2008 summer p185-186oise

quartz

Turquoise

Gems & Gemology 2008 summer p185-186

 

LOCALITIES

STONE

LOCALITIES

REFERENCE

Turquoise

Yungaisi Mine, Yun

Shiyan Prefecture

Hubei Province

China

www.mindat.org

Turquoise

Zhushan

Shiyan Prefecture

Hubei Province

China

Gems & Gemology Fall 2012, p198-203

Turquoise

Nishapur Deposit, Nishapur (Nishabur; Neyshabur)

Meshed

Chorassan (Khorasan)

Iran

Lapis 1995/1

Turquoise

Nacozari

Cananea

Sonora

Mexico

Extra Lapis 16  (1999)

Turquoise

Biryuzakan, Khudzan, Tabeschary

Karamazar Mts

 

Tajikistan

Eugenii Ya. Kievlenko, Geology of Gems, p242 (2003)

Turquoise

Umba Valley

Lelatema Mts

Arusha Region

Tanzania

Gemmologie, 1997, Mar,p31

Turquoise

Bisbee mine (Lavender pit) , Bisbee, Warren District

Cochise County

Arizona

USA

J. E. Pogue, Turquois (1972)

Turquoise

Castle Dome Mine, Inspiration, Globe-Miami District

Gila county

Arizona

USA

Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy  of Arizona, 3rd.ed

Turquoise

Sleeping Beauty Mine, Miami District

Gila County

Arizona

USA

J. E. Pogue, Turquois (1972)

Turquoise

Morenci Mine (Morenci pit; Phelps Dodge Morenci Mine), Morenci, Shannon Mts

Greenlee County

Arizona

USA

J. E. Pogue, Turquois (1972)

Turquoise

Mineral Park District, Kingman, Cerbat Mts

Mohave County

Arizona

USA

J. E. Pogue, Turquois (1972)

Turquoise

Baker

San Bernardino County

California

USA

MinRec 8:282

Turquoise

King's Manassa Mine, Manassa

Conejos County

Colorado

USA

http://nevadagem.com

Turquoise

Hall turquoise mine, Villa Grove district

Saguache County

Colorado

USA

Minerals of Colorado, Edwin B. Eckel, Updated by Robert R.Cobban, 1997

Turquoise

Cripple Creek

Teller County

Colorado

USA

Extra Lapis 16  (1999)

Turquoise

Carlin Black Matrix mine, Merrimac District

Elko County

Nevada

USA

NBMG Rept 17 Turquoise Deposits of Nevada (1968)

Turquoise

Stormy Mountain Mine

Elko County

Nevada

USA

http://nevadagem.com

Turquoise

Candelaria-Sigmund group, Candelaria District (Columbus District)

Esmeralda County

Nevada

USA

NBMG Bull 78 Geology and Mineral Deposits of Esmeralda County, Nevada

Turquoise

Crow Spring mine (Blue Friday mine; Petry mine), Crow Springs District

Esmeralda County

Nevada

USA

NBMG Bull 78 Geology and Mineral Deposits of Esmeralda County, Nevada

Turquoise

Lone Mountain deposit, Lone Mountain District

Esmeralda County

Nevada

USA

NBMG Bull 78 Geology and Mineral Deposits of Esmeralda County, Nevada

Turquoise

Number Eight mine, Lynn District

Eureka County

Nevada

USA

NBMG Bull 64 Geology and Mineral Resources of Eureka County, Nevada

Turquoise

Blue Diamond Mine, Iowa Canyon

Lander County

Nevada

USA

http://nevada-outback-gems.com

Turquoise

Blue Gem Turquoise mine (Turquoise Tunnel, Contention, Pedro lode), Battle Mountain District

Lander County

Nevada

USA

NBMG Bull 80 Geology and Mineral Deposits of Lander County, Nevada

Turquoise

Blue Ridge Mine (Orvil Jack), Bullion Mining district

Lander County

Nevada

USA

http://nevadagem.com

Turquoise

Carico Lake mine, Carico Lake District

Lander County

Nevada

USA

NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada

Turquoise

Damele mine, Birch Creek District

Lander County

Nevada

USA

http://nevadagem.com

Turquoise

Dry Creek mine (Godber mine)

Lander County

Nevada

USA

NBMG Bull 80 Geology and Mineral Deposits of Lander County, Nevada

Turquoise

Fox Mine (Cortez Turquoise mine), Cortez District

Lander County

Nevada

USA

NBMG Bull 80 Geology and Mineral Deposits of Lander County, Nevada

Turquoise

Indian Mountain Mine

Lander County

Nevada

USA

http://southwestgems.com

Turquoise

Lander Blue mine, Bullion District

Lander County

Nevada

USA

NBMG Spec Pub 31 Minerals of Nevada

Turquoise

Pinto mine (Watts mine, Nevada Blue mine)

Lander County

Nevada

USA

NBMG Bull 80 Geology and Mineral Deposits of Lander County, Nevada

Turquoise

Red Mountain Mine, Cortez

Lander County

Nevada

USA

http://nevadagem.com

Turquoise

Super-X mine (Arrowhead mine), Bullion District

Lander County

Nevada

USA

NBMG Bull 80 Geology and Mineral Deposits of Lander County, Nevada

Turquoise

Taubert No. 2 prospect, Yerington, Yerington District

Lyon County

Nevada

USA

NBMG Rept 17 Turquoise Deposits of Nevada (1968)

Turquoise

Montezuma Mine, Pilot Mountains District

Mineral County

Nevada

USA

NBMG Bull 58 Geology and Mineral Resources of Mineral County, Nevada

Turquoise

Moqui-Aztec mine (S. Simmons mine), Pilot Mountains District

Mineral County

Nevada

USA

NBMG Rept 17 Turquoise Deposits of Nevada (1968)

Turquoise

Blue Gem Claim (Easter Blue Claim; Blue Mountain Claim; Mike lode Claim), Republic District

Nye County

Nevada

USA

NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada

Turquoise

Gabbs District

Nye County

Nevada

USA

NBMG Spec Pub 31 Minerals of Nevada

Turquoise

Royal Blue Mine, Tonopah, Tonopah District

Nye County

Nevada

USA

Minerals of Nevada, Stephen B. Castor and Gregory C. Ferdock, 2004

Turquoise

Lost mine of Enchantment, Ruidosa, Sacramento Mts

Lincoln County

New Mexico

USA

http://southwestgems.com

Turquoise

Villa Grove Turquoise Mine, Bonanza (Kerber Creek) District

Saguache County

Colorado

USA

U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.

 

CHEMICAL DATA (%)

Stone

Colour

Locality

Reference

SiO2

Al2O3

MgO

Fe2O3

FeO

CaO

CuO

H2O

P2O5

TiO2

Na2O

K2O

ZnO

Turquoise

green

 

China

Gemmologie, Zeitschrift der deutschen gemmologischen Gesellschaft, 2001, Jun p111

 

33.23

 

2.87

 

0.07

7.54

 

31.69

 

 

 

 

Turquoise

blue-green

Yunyang, Hubei

China

The Journal of Gemmology 1998, Vol 26, N°1, p7

 

35.57

 

2.7

0.03

 

7.17

20.32

34.15

 

 

 

 

Turquoise

green

Yunyang, Hubei

China

The Journal of Gemmology 1998, Vol 26, N°1, p7

 

34.79

 

3.07

0.04

0.02

6.38

18.71

35.11

 

 

 

 

Turquoise

yellow-green

Yunyang, Hubei

China

The Journal of Gemmology 1998, Vol 26, N°1, p7

 

34.06

 

6.58

0.08

 

6.23

18.73

34.89

 

 

 

 

Turquoise

pale blue

Yunyang, Hubei

China

The Journal of Gemmology 1998, Vol 26, N°1, p7

 

36.12

 

1.14

 

0.02

7.52

20.64

33.4

 

 

 

 

Turquoise

blue

Yunyang, Hubei

China

The Journal of Gemmology 1998, Vol 26, N°1, p7

 

35.92

 

1.21

 

0.04

8.34

19.75

34.64

 

 

 

 

Turquoise

pale blue-green

Zushan County

China

Gems & Gemology Fall 2012, p202

0.02

33.46

0.02

4.21

0.32

0.02

5.87

21.96

33.16

 

0.01

0.03

0.09

Turquoise

blue-green

Zushan County

China

Gems & Gemology Fall 2012, p202

0.06

34.9

0.01

5.57

0.18

0.03

3.97

22.24

31.12

0.06

0.02

0.03

0.08

Turquoise

light blue-green

Zushan County

China

Gems & Gemology Fall 2012, p202

0.5

33.5

0.01

6.58

0.06

0.01

3.75

22.82

31.69

0.02

0.03

0.02

0.04

Turquoise

blue

Zushan County

China

Gems & Gemology Fall 2012, p202

0.2

36.3

0.01

1.43

0.09

0.04

7.63

20.09

33.8

 

0.01

0.02

0.12

Turquoise

light blue

Zushan County

China

Gems & Gemology Fall 2012, p202

0.16

36.15

0.01

1.13

0.08

0.02

6.17

23.38

33.52

 

0.01

0.01

0.92

Turquoise

blue

Yun County

China

Gems & Gemology Fall 2012, p202

 

35.92

0.01

1.21

0.08

0.04

8.34

19.75

34.64

 

 

 

 

Turquoise

blue-green

Yun County

China

Gems & Gemology Fall 2012, p202

 

35.57

 

2.7

0.03

 

7.17

20.32

34.15

 

 

 

 

Turquoise

blue

Yun County

China

Gems & Gemology Fall 2012, p202

0.9

38.29

 

0.31

 

 

8.55

 

34.22

 

 

 

0.44

Turquoise

blue-green

Yun County

China

Gems & Gemology Fall 2012, p202

0.05

32.5

 

8.97

 

 

7.93

 

34.81

 

 

 

0.14